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# Compression of images with a mathematical approach based on sine and cosine equations and vector quantization (VQ)javascript:;

• Yazar Cevat Rahebi
• Tür Makale
• Yayın Yılı 2023
• Veritabanları Wos,Scopus
• DOI 10.1007/s00500-023-08060-9
• Yayıncı Springer
• Dergi Soft Computing 27, ( 22 ), pp.17291 - 17311
• Tek Biçim Adres https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.14081/1836
• Konu Başlıkları

Compressing the image causes less memory to be used to store the images. Compressing images increases the transmission speed of compressed images in the network. Vector quantization (VQ) is one of the image compression methods. The challenge of the vector quantization method for compression is the non-optimization of the codebooks. Codebook optimization increases the quality of compressed images and reduces the volume of compressed images. Various methods of swarm intelligence and meta-heuristics are used to improve the vector quantization algorithm, but using meta-heuristic methods based on mathematical sciences has less history. This paper uses an improved sine–cosine algorithm (SCA) version to optimize the vector quantization algorithm and reduce the compression error. The reason for using the SCA algorithm in image compression is the balance between the search for exploration and exploitation search by sine and cosine functions, which makes it less likely to get caught in local optima. The proposed method to reduce the calculation error of the SCA algorithm uses spiral trigonometric functions and a new mathematical helix. The proposed method searches for optimal solutions with spiral and snail searches, increasing the chances of finding more optimal solutions. The proposed method aims to find a more optimal codebook by the improved version of SCA in the VQ compression algorithm. The advantage of the proposed method is finding optimal codebooks and increasing the quality of compressed images. The proposed method implementing in MATLAB software, and experiments showed that the proposed method’s PSNR index improves the VQ algorithm’s ratio by 13.73%. Evaluations show that the proposed method’s PSNR index of compressed images is higher and better than PBM, CS-LBG, FA-LBG, BA-LBG, HBMO-LBG, QPSO-LBG, and PSO-LBG. The result shows that the proposed method (or ISCA-LBG) has less time complexity than HHO and WOA compression algorithms.Compressing the image causes less memory to be used to store the images. Compressing images increases the transmission
speed of compressed images in the network. Vector quantization (VQ) is one of the image compression methods. The
challenge of the vector quantization method for compression is the non-optimization of the codebooks. Codebook optimization increases the quality of compressed images and reduces the volume of compressed images. Various methods of
swarm intelligence and meta-heuristics are used to improve the vector quantization algorithm, but using meta-heuristic
methods based on mathematical sciences has less history. This paper uses an improved sine–cosine algorithm (SCA)
version to optimize the vector quantization algorithm and reduce the compression error. The reason for using the SCA
algorithm in image compression is the balance between the search for exploration and exploitation search by sine and
cosine functions, which makes it less likely to get caught in local optima. The proposed method to reduce the calculation
error of the SCA algorithm uses spiral trigonometric functions and a new mathematical helix. The proposed method
searches for optimal solutions with spiral and snail searches, increasing the chances of finding more optimal solutions. The
proposed method aims to find a more optimal codebook by the improved version of SCA in the VQ compression algorithm.
The advantage of the proposed method is finding optimal codebooks and increasing the quality of compressed images. The
proposed method implementing in MATLAB software, and experiments showed that the proposed method’s PSNR index
improves the VQ algorithm’s ratio by 13.73%. Evaluations show that the proposed method’s PSNR index of compressed
images is higher and better than PBM, CS-LBG, FA-LBG, BA-LBG, HBMO-LBG, QPSO-LBG, and PSO-LBG. The result
shows that the proposed method (or ISCA-LBG) has less time complexity than HHO and WOA compression algorithms.

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 Eser Adı(dc.title) Compression of images with a mathematical approach based on sine and cosine equations and vector quantization (VQ)javascript:; Yazar(dc.contributor.author) Cevat Rahebi Yayın Yılı(dc.date.issued) 2023 Tür(dc.type) Makale Özet(dc.description.abstract) Compressing the image causes less memory to be used to store the images. Compressing images increases the transmission speed of compressed images in the network. Vector quantization (VQ) is one of the image compression methods. The challenge of the vector quantization method for compression is the non-optimization of the codebooks. Codebook optimization increases the quality of compressed images and reduces the volume of compressed images. Various methods of swarm intelligence and meta-heuristics are used to improve the vector quantization algorithm, but using meta-heuristic methods based on mathematical sciences has less history. This paper uses an improved sine–cosine algorithm (SCA) version to optimize the vector quantization algorithm and reduce the compression error. The reason for using the SCA algorithm in image compression is the balance between the search for exploration and exploitation search by sine and cosine functions, which makes it less likely to get caught in local optima. The proposed method to reduce the calculation error of the SCA algorithm uses spiral trigonometric functions and a new mathematical helix. The proposed method searches for optimal solutions with spiral and snail searches, increasing the chances of finding more optimal solutions. The proposed method aims to find a more optimal codebook by the improved version of SCA in the VQ compression algorithm. The advantage of the proposed method is finding optimal codebooks and increasing the quality of compressed images. The proposed method implementing in MATLAB software, and experiments showed that the proposed method’s PSNR index improves the VQ algorithm’s ratio by 13.73%. Evaluations show that the proposed method’s PSNR index of compressed images is higher and better than PBM, CS-LBG, FA-LBG, BA-LBG, HBMO-LBG, QPSO-LBG, and PSO-LBG. The result shows that the proposed method (or ISCA-LBG) has less time complexity than HHO and WOA compression algorithms.Compressing the image causes less memory to be used to store the images. Compressing images increases the transmission speed of compressed images in the network. Vector quantization (VQ) is one of the image compression methods. The challenge of the vector quantization method for compression is the non-optimization of the codebooks. Codebook optimization increases the quality of compressed images and reduces the volume of compressed images. Various methods of swarm intelligence and meta-heuristics are used to improve the vector quantization algorithm, but using meta-heuristic methods based on mathematical sciences has less history. This paper uses an improved sine–cosine algorithm (SCA) version to optimize the vector quantization algorithm and reduce the compression error. The reason for using the SCA algorithm in image compression is the balance between the search for exploration and exploitation search by sine and cosine functions, which makes it less likely to get caught in local optima. The proposed method to reduce the calculation error of the SCA algorithm uses spiral trigonometric functions and a new mathematical helix. The proposed method searches for optimal solutions with spiral and snail searches, increasing the chances of finding more optimal solutions. The proposed method aims to find a more optimal codebook by the improved version of SCA in the VQ compression algorithm. The advantage of the proposed method is finding optimal codebooks and increasing the quality of compressed images. The proposed method implementing in MATLAB software, and experiments showed that the proposed method’s PSNR index improves the VQ algorithm’s ratio by 13.73%. Evaluations show that the proposed method’s PSNR index of compressed images is higher and better than PBM, CS-LBG, FA-LBG, BA-LBG, HBMO-LBG, QPSO-LBG, and PSO-LBG. The result shows that the proposed method (or ISCA-LBG) has less time complexity than HHO and WOA compression algorithms. Açık Erişim Tarihi(dc.date.available) 2023-04-11 Yayıncı(dc.publisher) Springer Dil(dc.language.iso) En Konu Başlıkları(dc.subject) Image compression Konu Başlıkları(dc.subject) Vector quantization Konu Başlıkları(dc.subject) Image processing Konu Başlıkları(dc.subject) Sine cosine algorithm (SCA) Tek Biçim Adres(dc.identifier.uri) https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.14081/1836 ISSN(dc.identifier.issn) 1432-7643 Dergi(dc.relation.journal) Soft Computing Dergi Sayısı(dc.identifier.issue) 22 Esere Katkı Sağlayan(dc.contributor.other) Rahebi, Javad Esere Katkı Sağlayan(dc.contributor.other) Ghadami, Raheleh DOI(dc.identifier.doi) 10.1007/s00500-023-08060-9 Orcid(dc.identifier.orcid) 0000-0001-9875-4860 Bitiş Sayfası(dc.identifier.endpage) 17311 Başlangıç Sayfası(dc.identifier.startpage) 17291 Dergi Cilt(dc.identifier.volume) 27 wosquality(dc.identifier.wosquality) Q2 wosauthorid(dc.contributor.wosauthorid) DNF-7937-2022 Department(dc.contributor.department) Yazılım Mühendisliği Wos No(dc.identifier.wos) WOS:000967917600007 Veritabanları(dc.source.platform) Wos Veritabanları(dc.source.platform) Scopus
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