Indominantly Muslim societies, there have been two major feminist paradigms referred to as “secular Muslim feminism”emerging at late nineteenth century and “Islamic feminism(s)”arising after the 4th women world congress inBeijingin 1995. They evolved in historical contexts where new subjects and identities were being re/fashioned out of shifting combinations of religious, class, ethnic, and nationalaffiliations. On the one hand, secular Muslim feminism joined the western oriented first wave of liberal feminism including secular nationalists, Islamic modernists, humanitarian/human rightists, and democrats. Islamic feminism,on the oth . . .er hand,is expressed in a single or dominantly religiously grounded discourse taking the Qur'an as its core text. In this article, I reflect on the roots of feminism in the Middle Eastwith a particular emphasis on Egypt, Iran and Turkey. I discusssecular feminism and Islamic feminism, and what makes them distinct. Finally, I discuss whether a new wave of Islamic feminism has been formed with the criticisms of a new generation of Islamic feminists
The use of children who have been most exposed to the destructive effects of wars for various military activities has been seen throughout history. Child soldiers are involved in civil wars and conflicts in many countries, especially in Africa, without discrimination. Even if the participation of 15-year-olds in the Army is accepted as a war crime by the United Nations, some 300,000 children are actively involved in wars today. The key to child soldiers is the reintroduction and retraining of these children. However, what should be mentioned here is that these children are guilty? Or a victim? In this article, the child soldier prob . . .lem will be discussed from two angles. First, the effectiveness of the decisions taken to prevent criminal organisations and states from committing this crime to recruit child soldiers within the framework of international law rules will be discussed. Secondly, based on the example of Uganda, the programs prepared by the international community for the reintegration of former child warriors to society will be analysed
İstanbulTopkapı Üniversitesi, akademisyen ve lisansüstü öğrencilerinin iç ve dış paydaşlarla birlikte ürettikleri bilimsel çalışmalarını, Akademik Açık Arşivi'nde dijital olarak yayınlayarak, ülke ve dünya genelinde bilim topluluğuna açık erişim sağlamaktadır.
Akademik Açık Arşivi'nde bulunan tüm kaynaklar, telif haklarına saygı gösterilerek ve açık erişim ilkeleri doğrultusunda yayınlanmaktadır.
İstanbul Topkapı Üniversitesi, bilimsel bilgiye erişimi kolaylaştırarak, araştırma sonuçlarını ve bilimsel yayınları geniş bir kitleye sunarak bilimsel gelişmelere katkıda bulunmayı amaçlamaktadır.
6698 sayılı Kişisel Verilerin Korunması Kanunu kapsamında yükümlülüklerimiz ve çerez politikamız hakkında bilgi sahibi olmak için alttaki bağlantıyı kullanabilirsiniz.